Duryea (US); Turnbull (Canada)

The Duryea engines discussed here were built to specifications issued by Canadian aviation pioneer W. Rupert Turnbull. Duryea Power Co. of Reading, Pennsylvania was founded in 1900 by Charles E. Duryea, one of the famous Duryea brothers of early automobile development, and continued in business until 1907 (K&C, pp. 506-509). Details of the life and work of Turnbull can be found in a two-part paper in the Journal of the Canadian Aeronautical Institute (now the Canadian Aeronautical and Space Institute), Vols.1 and 2, 1955 and 1956.

Sometime before 1905, Duryea had built a two-cylinder engine for Turnbull. The engine was guaranteed to deliver 2hp@1200rpm for a weight of 12#. Unfortunately for Duryea, the engine weighed 18# and was not accepted by Turnbull. However, two examples of the HOAE described below were ordered by Turnbull in November 1905. The first was delivered in May1906 and was found to be too rough-running for Turnbull's application. It was accepted, but the second example was canceled. Turnbull ordered these engines to drive air propellers for a pair of hydroplanes that he had built as test vehicles for later hydro-aeroplane development. The engines were not deemed satisfactory, so the hydroplanes and the later developments were abandoned. Nevertheless, the engine is considered to be the first aviation engine in Canada and was rebuilt later for the historical collection of the National Research Council of Canada. Please note that this is the earliest HOAE that the compiler has yet found.

OL-185 - - {4.625 / 5.5 / 184.8} / {117.5 / 139.7 / 3028}

2cyl; Duryea-Turnbull; 16hp@N/A rpm; 1905-1906; Wt = 120#; TC = none.
Four-stroke cycle, liquid-cooled engine with single-ignition, which was provided by 5 to 10 dry-cell batteries distributed around the wooden rim of a spoked flywheel. The inlet valves opened automatically and the exhaust valves were operated by tappets. There were no crankcase and no exhaust pipes.
CASI Journal Vol. 2, 2/56, p.42.
Applications: (Canada) Turnbull hydroplanes (unsucessful test vehicles for later flight).


Updated 7/26/04